In Memoriam: Franz Clouth (1838 - 1910) und Nachfolger Max Clouth
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Rechtsanwalt Jürgen Peter Eugen Franz Clouth 2016

Freedom of work, Freedom of thought and action Success

At the beginning of a company was in former time often only the honest effort of an individual to prove itself in life. Through an idea, through the environment, political incentives, or even by chance, this search may someday be a direction and a goal, as far as the political conditions permit this of course. Founding years, as they were available to Franz Clouth at that time, we would once again urgently need in Germany - a time of departure, progress, and self-responsibility of the individual (CALVIN) as it existed before the widening social state.
Franz Clouth's time was the industrial upheaval of the Ordo Liberals. Even today still possible during the European upheaval?
Red tape, presumption of advances, anti-innovation and care, risk-taking and pensions are the standards of the ideologically acting left-wing thinking of today's German politicians and large parts of the comfortably elected electorate in reunited Germany as well as Europe. The entrepreneurial freedom of the individual has, in recent times, been more and more pushed into the background through over-arching administration and over-regulation by the German state and by directives of the European Community. The English population expressed their criticism by their Brexit striving in 2016 not for one reason, this is one of them .
The historical development, which has become more and more entrepreneurial, began with the theoretical ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who personally had an uncanny local proximity to Wilhelm Clouth, the father of the company founder Franz (see "Succession"). In this respect, the Clouth family, beginning with Wilhelm Clouth, had experienced the time of the historical turnout of capitalism as well as the "promotion" of Marx's and Engels' ideas of anti-entrepreneurial world communism and socialism.

In the period from 1830 to 1900, the "German industry", that, which still feeds us today, was successfully developed in the post-war period of Germany through the politics of Prof. Dr. Ludwig Erhard within the framework of ordo liberalism forced onto the post war Germans by America and the UK successfully. A great deal of hope for the entrepreneur would be the union of Europe if it succeeded to revive the entrepreneurial liberties by defending a European central state in the direction of a federal union and to protect it for every willing to venture. There is already some evidence that the development of Community law and its interactions with national law and laws, as well as the jurisprudence of EUGH (European Court), would be considered in terms of liberalism. On the other hand, the emigrating political activity of the Socialist International / ICOR in the area of Europe makes the will to the European Communist central state, and thus to a state preferred by Marx, clear. British voters and their government seem to feel and foresee that already, one reason for BREXIT 2016?
As entrepreneurs, we were watching the political development of Germany and Europe and then reacting, according to the above maxim:

"Freedom of work, Freedom of thought and action Success!"

      J.P. Clouth (Lawyer & Merchant)

Clouth Firm Cologne 1873

In England and the USA, Macintosh, Hancock and Goodyear was able to process the natural product rubber technically, the first rubber factory was founded in Austria in 1828 and one year later the first German rubber factory was built in Finsterwalde near Berlin. After the beginning of the vulcanization technique from 1840, further works followed in Berlin in 1849 and in Hamburg in 1856. The well-known "Phoenix" rubber factory, 1862, was later developed from the Harburg Gummikamm Compagnie and Harburg Rubber Works Albert and Louis Cohen , When Franz Clouth founded his first company in the Kölner Sternengasse, Hanover 's Gummikamm - Compagnie, the germ cell of the later Continental, was established in Hanover.


Clouth Products sold world wide


Plantation                               Caouchoc                         Sheets    

Rubber was known to the indigenous peoples of the Americas long before the arrival of European explorers. In 1525, Padre d'Anghieria reported that he had seen Mexican tribespeople playing with elastic balls. The first scientific study of rubber was undertaken by Charles de la Condamine, when he encountered it during his trip to Peru in 1735. A French engineer that Condamine met in Guiana, Fresnau studied rubber on its home ground, reaching the conclusion that this was nothing more than a "type of condensed resinous oil".
The first use for rubber was an eraser. It was Magellan, a descendent of the famous Portuguese navigator, who suggested this use. In England, Priestley popularized it to the extent that it became known as India Rubber. The word for rubber in Portuguese - borracha - originated from one of the first applications for this product, when it was used to make jars replacing the leather borrachas that the Portuguese used to ship wine.
Returning to the works of Condamine, Macquer suggested that rubber could be used to produce flexible tubes. Since then, countless craftsmen have become involved with rubber; goldsmith Bernard, herbalist Winch, Grossart, Landolles and others. In 1820, British industrialist Nadier produced rubber threads and attempted to use them in clothing accessories. This was the time when America was seized by rubber fever, and the waterproof footwear used by the indigenous peoples became a success. Waterproof fabrics and snow-boots were produced in New England.
In 1832, the Rosburg factory was set up. Unfortunately, cold weather affected goods made from non-vulcanized natural rubber, leaving them brittle and with a tendency to gum together if left in the sun, all discouraging consumers. After a long period attempting to develop a process to upgrade rubber qualities (such as including nitric acid) that almost ruined him, in 1840 Goodyear discovered vulcanization, quite by accident.
An interesting fact: in 1815, a humble sawyer - Hancock - became one of the leading manufacturers in the UK. He had invented a rubber mattress and through an association with MacIntosh he produced the famous waterproof coat known as the "macintosh". Furthermore, he discovered how to cut, roll and press rubber on an industrial scale. He also noted the importance of heat during the pressing process, and built a machine for this purpose.
MacIntosh discovered the use of benzene as a solvent, while Hancock discovered that prior chipping and heating were required in order to ensure that the rubber dissolved completely. Hancock also discovered how to manufacture elastic balls. Finally, in 1842, Hancock came into possession of vulcanized rubber produced by Goodyear, seeking and finding the secret of vulcanization that brought him a vast fortune.
In 1845, R.W. Thomson invented the pneumatic tire, the inner tube and even the textured tread. In 1850 rubber toys were being made, as well as solid and hollow balls for golf and tennis. The invention of the velocípede by Michaux in 1869 led to the invention of solid rubber, followed by hollow rubber and finally the re-invention of the tire, because Thomson's invention had been forgotten. The physical properties of rubber were studied too by Payen, as well as Graham, Wiesner and Gérard.
Finally, Bouchardt discovered how to polymerize isoprene between 1879 and 1882, obtaining products with properties similar to rubber. The first bicycle tire dates back to 1830, and in 1895 Michelin had the daring idea of adapting the tire to the automobile. Since then, rubber has held an outstanding position on the global market.
As rubber is an important raw material that plays a leading role in modern civilization, chemists soon became curious to learn more about its composition in order to synthesize it. In the XIX century, work focused on this objective, soon discovering that rubber is an isoprene polymer.
The Russians and the Germans broke fresh ground in their efforts to synthesize rubber. But the resulting products were unable to compete with natural rubber. It was only during World War I that Bayer Leverkusen Germany - pressured by circumstances - had to develop the industrialized version of this synthetic product. This was the springboard for the massive development of the synthetic rubber industry all over the world, producing elastomers.
Natural Rubber
Natural rubber is a solid product obtained through coagulating the latex produced by certain plants, particularly the Brazilian rubber-tree (Hevea Brasiliensis). This raw material is usually tapped from the rubber tree, which is native to Amazonia. Although there a large number of species that exude secretions similar to latex when the bark is cut, only a few produce sufficient quantities of a quality adequate for exploitation on economic bases.
The history of natural rubber in Brazil is a tale that is just as exciting as the Gold Rush in the USA. For almost fifty years - during the second half of the XIX century through to the second decade of the XX century - natural rubber underpinned one of the most important development booms in Brazil. At that time, the Industrial Revolution was expanding rapidly as the world lived through a time of prosperity and discoveries that was reflected in all sectors. Automobiles, trams, telephones, electric light and other innovations changed the landscapes and customs of towns and cities. New markets opened up. This was the Belle Époque period, whose splendor has been portrayed in literature and film for subsequent generations.
Thanks to its multiple applications, particularly in the expanding automobile industry, rubber produced from latex tapped from rubber-trees became a product in demand worldwide. And there was no lack of rubber-trees in the Brazilian Amazon. This brought a boom to Northern Brazil - which at that time was one of the poorest and least-inhabited parts of the country. Eager to work the rubber-groves of Amazonia, leading foreign banks and companies set up shop in the towns of Belém and Manaus.

The capital of Amazonas State become the economic heart of Brazil. It was equipped with water and electricity supplies, in addition to telephones and large buildings such as the Amazonas Theater, still today a symbol of the wealth brought in by Brazil's rubber boom. Thousands of immigrants flowed in, mainly fleeing the drought that assailed Northeast
3 Brazil during the 1870s, invading the forest to tap the latex and turn it into rubber.
The output of Amazonia reached 42,000 tons a year, with Brazil dominating the global natural rubber market. This euphoria lasted through to 1910, when the situation began to change: rubber exports began to appear on the market from British Colonies, and Brazil was unable to withstand this fierce competition.
In 1876 the British smuggled out rubber-tree seeds from Amazonia to the Botanical Gardens in London. Through grafting, they developed more resistant varieties that were later sent to the Colonies in Asia where massive rubber plantations were established, particularly in Malaysia, Ceylon and Singapore.
The difference between latex production techniques in Brazil and Asia was a significant factor in the development of this business, due to these plantations. While the rubber trees of Asia were set only four meters apart, it was sometimes necessary to walk miles between one tree and the next in Amazonia, limiting the amount of latex collected and increasing its price. Obviously, the well-organized plantations of the Far East resulted in a significant increase in productivity, making them more competitive.
In Brazil, the Government was unwilling to change these methods. It believed that tapping these rubber trees would ensure the presence of Brazilians in the Amazon region, guaranteeing national sovereignty over this largely unpopulated area. It opted for geopolitics represented by human settlements instead of geo-economics that could have produced higher gains.
This relative immobility cost Brazil dear; its exports shrank as they were unable to withstand the competition of Asian rubber, tapped at far lower prices. Consequently, production began to drop, bringing the decades of boom to an end for much of Northern Brazil. The companies that had set up shop in Manaus and Belém left in search of other more productive regions. The immigrants went home, and leading names in the world of the arts no longer performed at the Amazonas Theater. This golden age of opulence slipped into history.
In the late 1920s, Brazil was still attempting to catch up this lost ground with the help of an unexpected partner: US industrialist Henry Ford, who had developed a new scheme - the production line - that was to change the face of industry for ever, and at that time accounted for 50% of the world's vehicle output. In order to loosen the grip of the British Colonies in Southeast Asia on the rubber market - the precious raw material for making tires - Ford planted no less than 70 million rubber tree seedlings in an area covering one million hectares in Para State.

This ambitious project was soon christened Fordlândia by the local residents. It was designed to produce 300,000 tons of natural rubber a year, accounting for one half of global consumption. But the Ford Project succumbed to the hostile environment of the Amazon rainforest and was abandoned, posting huge losses.
Within this context, Asia dominated global supplies of natural rubber with over 90% of the output. However, significant changes redistributed the production among the main competitors. Accounting for one-third of global output in 1985, Malaysia fell back due to 4 alterations in its production profile, which began to stress non-agricultural investments. Its position as the world's largest natural rubber producer went to Thailand. Based on advantages in terms of available land and labor, Indonesia has maintained a significant share in global output since the 1980s.
Other countries have been successfully deploying their low-cost labor-forces and easilyavailable lands to expand in this sector, particularly India and China. By 2001, natural rubber consumption accounted for some 40% of the total amount of rubber consumed worldwide.
Synthetic Rubber

The importance of the rubber industry ever since it first appeared and the decisive role that it has played in the development of modern civilization prompted much interest in discovering its chemical composition in order to synthesize this product. Through these research projects, the tire industry saw the possibility of breaking away from the grip of the world's natural rubber plantations.
The drop in natural rubber production in Brazil coincided with World War I (1914-1918), triggering the need for lower-cost products with steadier supplies in order to manufacture tires. The pressures imposed by the conquest of the plantations of Asia by the Japanese prompted the development of a rubber that was able to meet the extraordinarily high demands of the troops at that time, although its structure differed somewhat from its natural counterpart.

This was how GR-S, Buna S, Hycar OS and SBR appeared, which are styrene and butadiene copolymers.Friedrich Hofmann, from 1897-1918 Chemist at the Elberfelder Farbenfabriken, former Bayer & Co., developed the first synthetic rubber for which the Imperial Patent Office granted patent no. 250 690 on September 12, 1909. The launch-pad for the massive development of the synthetic rubber industry, this product could be vulcanized easily, and became the flagship of the world rubber industry, although its properties did not correspond to all the qualities of natural rubber. But its costs and main characteristics made it into an unbeatable competitor. Although synthetic rubber had been known since 1875, its production had been expensive and almost negligible.
During World War II, a crucial historical episode altered the scenario for this market. On December 7, 1941, the USA entered the War. Three months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese invaded Malaysia and the Dutch East Indies, desperate to take over natural rubber production from the allies. This gave the Axis control over 95% of world rubber supplies, plunging the USA into a crisis.
Each Sherman tank contained twenty tons of steel and half a ton of rubber. Each warship contained 20,000 rubber parts. Rubber was used to coat every centimeter of wire used in every factory, home, office and military facilities throughout the USA. There was no synthetic alternative. Looking at all the possible sources, at normal consumption levels, the nation had stocks for around one year. And these reserves also had to supply the largest and most critical industry in the history of the world during a time of rapid expansion: the arms segment.
The response of Washington was rapid and dramatic. Four days after Pearl Harbor, the use of rubber in any product that was not essential to the war drive was banned. The 5 speed limit on US highways fell to 35 miles an hour, in order to reduce wear and tear on tires countrywide. Rubber chips were sold a penny or more per pound weight at over 400,000 depots all over the country. Even President Franklin Roosevelt's pet dog Fala saw his rubber toys melted. This was the largest recycling campaign ever recorded in history, ensuring the success of the Allies through to 1942.
Under these circumstances, an order was sent to all chemists and engineers to develop a synthetic rubber industry. In 1941, the total output of synthetic rubber barely topped 8,000 tons, consisting largely of products not suitable for tires.
The nation's survival depended on its capacity to manufacture over 800,000 tons of products that had barely begun to be developed. There were few detailed instructions on how the factories should organize themselves to produce this vast amount. No facilities had been built, nor was there any way of producing enough raw materials to produce rubber.
The US industrial sector had never been called upon to shoulder such a massive task, achieving so much so quickly. The engineers were given just two years to reach this target. If the synthetic rubber program failed, the capacity of the USA to fight the war would be blunted. This US drive was to help spread synthetic rubber throughout the world's market, even in Brazil as it strove to consolidate its industrial park during the post-War years.

A wide variety of synthetic rubbers have been developed since this product was first discovered. As massive investments were required to develop these different varieties, the production technology was heavily concentrated in long-established global enterprises such as DuPont, Bayer, Shell, Basf, Goodyear, Firestone, Michelin, EniChem, Dow, and Exxon.
The use of rubber is widespread, as the characteristics and properties of these elastomers
6 make them useful in almost all economic sectors: automobiles, footwear, civil construction, plastics, hospital materials and others that are of crucial importance in the daily life of society. As they are most widely used to produce tires, the SBR and BR varieties are the most widely consumed type of synthetic rubber.

Rubber Sheets

How did it get to Franz Clouth?

as a young entrepreneur about 1873,

about 1908

app. 1890

He had recognized the importance of the rubber industry in the Rhineland, and gained considerable experience through visits to England. Early on he received awards at exhibitions. In 1868 the resettlement began on the still existing factory site in Nippes. This was carried out with his own funds and with the financial support of his brother-in-law, the Cologne shipkeeper Karl Wahlenberg. The site was from the start to a later expansion. This also from the point of view that from the very beginning Franz Clouth intended to deliver exclusively to industry, that is, in large volumes. Franz Clouth was not the first rubber factory in Nippes. Before him, Ferdinand Kohlstadt had been relocated to Nippes for the production of rubber bands from Cologne, and moved to Deutz in 1864.

During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871, Franz Clouth, though not a member of the army, was a military member. He succeeded several times in bringing railroad trains with so-called love gifts for the soldiers to the gates of Paris. At the same time, he sold imported rubberized materials from England to the German siege armies before Metz and Paris, as his son Max later reported.

The company had the greatest success at this time, however, with Franz Clouth's patented copy sheets, the "Franz Clouth's unbelievable Caoutchuc copiers," which were successful in the market until the introduction of copying machines.

In 1873 began the production of rubber roller covers. Between 1872 and 1875, 200 people worked at Clouth. Besides the already mentioned copying leaves, milk bottle suckers, erasers and, from 1881 on, the Tourniquet hosiery, which could also be used as an assembly tool. After lengthy negotiations with the inventor, the surgeon at the University of Kiel and the real secretary of Frederick of Esmarch, 10 pfennigs were donated for every "Samariterzwecke". In total, 30,000 marks came together. At the same time, the company also distributed rubber articles from other manufacturers from Germany, France and especially from England.

In 1875 Clouth was the first to erect a department for the production of soft rubber in Germany. The later production consisted of rubber belts, driving ropes and conveyor belts, as well as rubber covers for rollers. This product range has attracted more and more customers in the booming industry, especially in the mining, armaments and colonial sectors. Lu-xusdampfer and D-trains were equipped with flooring from Clouth. Clouth products have already been delivered to Belgium, the Netherlands and Switzerland. The entire demand for milk bottle cleaners in Germany, Holland and Switzerland was at present covered by Clouth. With the further expansion of the sales markets it was already said that Franz Clouth had practically a world monopoly on these goods.

1880 began with the production of dipping apparatuses with speaking and listen devices for the deep diving industry. A little later, large spherical air bags were produced from heavily rubberized fabric to lift sunken ships. Also known worldwide were Clouth's originally designed for warfare swimming and diving suits. In 1898 they were mentioned in the "German Marinetücher Handbuch (German Naval Handbook for Marine Cloths)". And in 2004 the famous "divingheritage" wrote about Clouth's diving helmets that Franz Clouth took the 3-pin helmet of Frenchman Rou-quayrol-Denayrouze as the basis for his further development. When the helmet initially had the same problem as that of the French, namely, that it was firmly connected to a pumping station by means of long hoses, Clouth succeeded in developing a quick-detachable intermediate piece in the air-guiding hose, that was in a position to remove the hose himself, and to obtain the necessary quantity of air from a carried packer in order to reappear. This made the diving safer. The diving suit was very popular with the Imperial Army. Clouth had been the sole supplier since 1887.

The social commitment of Franz Clouth was also remarkable. "The 1st Bicycle Club Cöln 1880" is founded on the initiative of the tire manufacturer "Rubberworks Clouth" in Nippes. Franz Clouth seemed to be aware of the importance of the bicycle, motorcycle, cars and trucks as then modern means of transport, but did not follow the tire production later. This may be due to the development of the synthetic rubber "Buna" by Bayer Leverkusen, with which he partial connection had hanged. At the same time he saw in the founding of a cycling club also the opportunity for his products to advertise, as well as one or the other set off. He was not only an honorary member of the Nippes gymnasium, but also donated an amount of 6,000 marks to the city of Cologne for an urban gymnasium.

In the municipal election on 28 and 29 December 1885, Franz Clouth was elected to the municipal council of Nippes. In the decision of the Nippeser municipal council of 2 August 1887 of the incorporation to Cologne, Franz Clouth was thus decisively involved.

Franz Clouth was 1888 interested in the production of hard rubber, which was particularly resistant and introduced it to centrifuges, shipwaves, filters, etc. He also dealt with the Gutta-percha, which came from Malaysia. This material could be mechanically permanently deformed, was not vulcanized and gained importance in cable production.

After negotiations between Felten & Guilleaume and Clouth had failed in 1890 for the purpose of mutual supply, Felten & Guilleaume founded its own rubber factory and Clouth established its own cable manufacturing under the name "gutta-percha-insulated wires and cables". Clouth was appointed by the competing companies Siemens & Halske in Berlin and Siemens Brothers in London. Said companies complained. And a patent filed by Clouth. The trial ended in 1893 in favor of Franz Clouth. About 1890, Clouth was also one of the first rubber manufacturers to set up his own laboratory. He had realized that one can not do without scientific work in an industrial enterprise. The laboratory should therefore be used for research, in particular for quality assurance. Many reports show that Franz Clouth had already tried very early to prevent complaints or at least to minimize them.

Under the responsibility of their own cable production, Land- und Seekabelwerke AG was founded on May 11, 1898, in which Franz Clouth was a 50% shareholder. The other 50% held Berlin and Cologne banks. Of the land & sea cable plants founded by Clouth, the first remote cable from Emden to New York was laid. Because of the high demand, a cable ship was bought by Franz Clouth in England, if via Lord William George Armstrong, Newcastle, is not yet cleared.

Through the mediation of the Reichspost Felten & Guilleaume renounced the construction of a separate plant in Emden and Clouth on the construction of a separate cable plant in Nordenham. Instead, the Norddeutsche Seekabelwerke, in which Felten & Guilleaume was involved with 50%, was founded.

Under the direction of Franz Clouth, the "Verein der deutschen Kautschukwarenfabriken" (Association of German Rubber Warriors) was founded in Berlin in 1895. He was a member of the "Central Association of German Industrialists" and the "Association for the Protection of the Interests of the Chemical Industry", a member of the "Verein for the Protection of Common Economic Interests for Rhineland and Westphalia". As a member of the board, he belonged to the "Verein der Industriellen des Regierungsbezirkes Cöln" and the "Rheinische Dampfkessel-Überwachungsverein", today's German TÜV (technical MOT). He had cofounded both clubs.

In the "Verein der Industriellen" ("Association of Industrialists"), he concentrated mainly on matters relating to occupational health and safety and smoking incineration regulations, as well as on the development of the Nippes region and the economic development of Cologne. Because of an indiscretion, he resigned as a member of the board in 1904, but was reelected two years later. With these activities "around the rubber" it is astonishing that Franz Clouth is not bigger in the production of car tires. As early as 1882, the company produced Vollgummireifen for electric carts and tubing for automobile tires. In a magazine in 1899, she had advertised her "best" tires for Automobile. A legend reports that he ultimately had not believed in a success of the Automobile and thus the car tire. But this alleged statement by Franz Clouth is nowhere recorded.

On the other hand, the over-delivery seems to be a more luminous one, Franz Clouth, one of the first Cologne car owners, had experienced how often the tires of that time burst. For fear of complaints, he would not have produced car tires. But all these explanations were speculations and legends. In 1946, Dr. Max Clouth reported: "The company Clouth has also been manufacturing hoses for synthetic rubber car tires, which have an average service life of 6,000 to 8,000 km in the war [meaning the First World War]. This was already an achievement for those times. When I was judged by the military in 1916, I was offered a car for further experiments. It is interesting to know that I was able to drive a car in person in this car and that the weight of additional persons had to be replaced by sands bags ".

Franz Clouth also had recognized the importance of cable production and laying in the context of the economic debate with England and German colonialism and acted accordingly. Clouth made the most successful deals with the laying of cables to the then German colonies. It is therefore no wonder that Franz Clouth supported the colonial efforts of the German imperial empire. He was a co-founder or a member of the Supervisory Board at the German Atlantic Telegraph Company, the Telegraph Company in Eastern Europe, the German-Dutch Telegraph Company, the German-South American Telegraph Company and the Kabelwerke Aktiengesellschaft Felten & Guilleaume in St. Petersburg . He was in a correspondence with some of the German colonial travelers.

Another profit-making field was the armaments industry. For the imperial navy, Clouth developed and built its own diving apparatus with hearing and speech connections as well as airbags for the recovery of sunken ships. As already stated, the company became a monopolist in 1887 for dive machines of the imperial navy. At the regatta on 7.

In June 1914, the yacht Meteor won the title of Emperor Wilhelm II and received as a trophy a gold-plated diving helmet, which the company Clouth had donated. Through an exhibition on the imperial yacht Hohenzollern and the Berlin castle, the helmet got into the possession of the Imperial Yacht Club in Kiel in 1926. In 1937 Director Print-miller managed to get him back for the Clouth Museum.

For the armies of the German states Clouth made watertight tents and pumps. The imperial air force ordered protective covers for the propellers of their machines

Other, partly lauded products today were: rubber horse shoes, brewing hoses and horse-track buffer. Pictures from these years show that in addition to tennis balls from 1906 onwards, gray and colored rubber bobbins were made for children, mostly painted by women. The production output was finally so great that Clouth was able to join the Gummiball Syndicate in 1911. One of the main buyers of these balls was the company M. Levi, who had their business premises in the Sternengasse 3, the first company headquarters of Franz Clouth. The "Franz Clouth Rheinische Gummi-Waaren-Fabrik" (1896) promotes "Specialties for Chemical Factories" in the globally distributed chemists' newspaper in Cöthen (Saxony-Anhalt). After the previous owner Carl Vorberg had left the OHG in 1899, the company CIouth 1901 was converted into a limited liability company. In 1901, Clouth was awarded the first prize in the competition of the French Association for Combating Accidents at Work for the special and invented gloves.

In 1902 a rubber belt was shown at the industrial exhibition in Dusseldorf, which had already been in operation in a coke oven plant for 20 years and had only been extended for the exhibition. In the same year, Clouth maintained its own offices in Berlin, Hamburg, Brussels, London and Paris. Max Clouth himself directed the Paris and London offices for several years.

A book by Franz, Clouth, "Gummi, Guttapercha und Balata" was published in English in 1903 in London and New York, and had long been regarded as the standard work of the rubber industry in both countries. During his visit to the USA in 1927, Max Clouth was repeatedly asked whether he was related to the author of this work. In 1907, the good experiences described in Saxony with sealing rings for Water and gas pipelines, which after 10 years still showed their full elasticity.


Old Catholic "Franz Clouth", church of England in close connection

In 1869 Pope Pius IX convened a "general" church meeting in the Vatican. It is true that the Pope only ruled in the Roman Catholic Church, but he regarded it just as the "general" church and its special assemblies for equal importance in word and dignity to the great church assembly of Christian antiquity Later sense. Simultaneously with the convocation of the Vatican Council, the rumor spread that the doctrines of the episcopal omnipotence and the infallibility of the pope for divinely revealed beliefs were to be explained. These teachings show that the Roman pope possesses the full abundance of the highest, orderly and immediate, truly episcopal power, not only in matters of faith and morals, but also in matters of discipline and government over the entire world, in other words That he was the only true bishop of the Catholic Church, and that all the bishops were only his deputy; And further: that a decision made by the Pope concerning a doctrine of faith and morality should be infallible, infallible, and in itself, not by the consent of the Church.

These views were not entirely new in the Catholic Church, inasmuch as in the Middle Ages similar claims were raised from the papal side, and in modern times, especially the Jesuits endeavored to spread them; Already at the church meeting in Trento (1545-1563), which had a large settlement with the Reformation, had tried in vain to bring them to recognition. In the meantime, this church church recognition had not yet been attained; It should now be done. Like a man, all the Catholics, who felt free and German, rose against this purpose, for with these beliefs their whole ecclesiastical existence was questioned.
Even if a full, clear knowledge was often lacking at the outset, there was generally a more or less clear feeling that these sentences had brought a whole peculiar system of views to the conclusion and with its recognition a victory Centuries had been the struggle of all the free and peoples in Catholicism. For the history of the Western Church has always had a profound inner contrast: for the first time, pioneers for simple, pure, inner Christianity have faced the partisans of the Roman chair with their external church and their political hopes and aspirations. The free and ethnic Catholics had for a long time been no longer accustomed to the fact that the peace of their church was affected by the behaviour of the Ultramontans (as we would call them today;"
Ultramontanism" was a political attitude of Catholicism, especially in the German-speaking countries, including the Netherlands, based on instructions from the papal curia, that is, from the "Vatican", which is supported "beyond the mountains" (Latin "ultramontes" - meaning "beyondthe Alps"). The term was also used in France and Belgium; here, in a more general form, he stood for a front against the liberalism emerging in church and religion, and the political disputes within French Catholicism in the nineteenth century as a counter-model of Gallicanism.), the Jesuits, and their minds. Now their impulses for the only right and their views were to be declared decisive, and thus all the truly religious minds in the Church of the soil, the right to existence, should be withdrawn.

Thus it is comprehensible that all the religious forces that were alive in the Catholic Church had come together in the struggle against the Vatican endeavors, even if there had been no relations between them before. The whole general public turned their attention to this struggle, for at that time the Catholics were still active in all political camps, and took part in all general endeavors in scientific, artistic, and social fields; It was not yet as it was today, for Ultramontanism had not yet held its triumph, drawing its path with denominational parties, universities, associations, trade unions, bathing beaches, and dancing.

All the efforts of bishops and theologians from different countries to defend their doom were unsuccessful: on the 18th of July, 1870, the new faiths were proclaimed as "divine revelation"; 533 members of the church assembly agreed. But they did not represent any part of the church; Because they were only titular bishops or the like, 77 represented the church in the most recently converted parts of America, and Australia, many other areas of mission, And another figure represented very small dioceses. 250 had previously not, however, declared themselves against it; 35 million believers and just the old parts of the Church were represented, while 25 million believers were still in the process of being represented. More than half of all Catholics were therefore uninvolved in the proclamation of these teachings.

The German bishops had for the most part endeavored to prevent the proclamation of the faiths; But once the proclamation had taken place, they soon brought their conscience to rest, and now demanded their priests and faithful to accept and acknowledge these beliefs, but from meetings, books, pamphlets, and newspapers, they sounded 1000 times "no". Of course, there could be no question of a unified movement, which was not the contradiction of a particular ecclesiastical tendency or party, but rather the rebellion of the whole true Catholicism; There were so-called "old-Catholic associations" in Baden, who had endeavored to cultivate German consciousness in Catholicism since the days of the Syllabus, as well as "Catholic associations for the defense of the villian innovations" which had arisen in the emergency of the moment; The luminaries of science stood with their pupils and followers, and beside them the heroic peasant chaplain, Thomas Braun, who had fought against a world for the old Catholic truth since the proclamation of the Immaculate Conception of Mary, and under pathetic police attacks in Lower Bavaria Had suffered. At one stroke, however, the movement had a center, as the respected Catholic scholar of the day, the penitent, and university professor Dr. Ignatz von Döllinger in Munich, frankly and publicly, the new doctrines "as a Christian, as a theologian, as a historian, as a citizen." And was able to endure this attitude courageously and firmly, even when he finally had to take over the Church. Thousands of letters of approval and explanations flowed together; The university teachers had become the leaders. They gathered together fellow-men; In repeated discussions here and there they had gained touch; Munich, Bonn and Breslau were their headquarters. The clearest among these were the Prague Church Law Teacher Dr. Johannes Friedrich von Schulte.

In September 1871, the first Old Catholics' Congress met in Munich. In the meantime, all the leaders had fallen into the hands of the church, the faithful threatened the same fate as soon as they became aware of their conviction. The hesitant wished to endure it, and to keep it all at the repeated appeal; It was with others, especially from Schulte, who decided to take self-help and collect their own congregations, that the break with the Roman church, founded on 18 July 1870, had been completed and a new home was created for the old Catholic Church. The Old Catholic Church, on the other hand, separated itself externally from the Roman, on the eighteenth of July, 1870, with the dogmatic explanation of the episcopal omnipotence and the doctrinal infallibility of the pope, the return to the ground of the old ecclesiastical Catholic doctrine Made it impossible for ever, had left the wide circle in her before.

A second Old Catholics Congress in Cologne in 1872 created a preliminary order for the church life and made the preparations for the election of a bishop; On June 4, 1873, a meeting of 21 priests and 56 lay deputies of the communities which had been established elected the professor of the church history at the University of Breslau, Dr. Joseph Hubert Rheinkens as the first bishop; On May 27, 1874, the first synod, by unanimous acceptance of a "synodal and church order," prepared by a third congress, held in Constance, in 1873, restored the old church constitution to the young church system.
At the same time, things developed in Switzerland and Austria.
A church community, of course, needs a church, so it was also in Cologne. It was necessary here, because there were few financial resources available to find financial community members who would participate in church building. Franz Clouth did so with the leaded glazing, in which we financed them.

This type of financing allowed the planned construction to be compiled relatively quickly according to the model developed. At the same time, however, the financiers in the strictly Catholic faithful of Cologne came to the rear of the building, for businessmen who at any rate were active in the region, a dubious venture, but less harmful to businessmen like Franz Clouth. This will have been different in private life, where parts of the family, kinship, neighborhood, population will have been kept back as far as possible.The construction of the building was not a hindrance, as you can see

The Second World War brought with it considerable damage, since the church was located directly on the railway line, which had several routes and therefore made possible military transports, so that this area was primarily considered for the bomb dropping The Campanile, the tower, and the functioning.

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